Computation of Tax

Under how many heads the income of a taxpayer is classified?

​​ ​​​​Section 14 of the Income-tax Act has classified the income of a taxpayer under five different heads of income, viz.:

  • Salaries
  • Income from house property
  • Profits and gains of business or profession
  • Capital gains
  • Income from other sources

 

  • What is gross total income?

​​Total income of a taxpayer from all the heads of income (as discussed in previous FAQ) is referred to as Gross Total Income.

  • What is the difference between gross total income and total income?

​​​​​Total Income is the income on which tax liability is determined. It is necessary to compute total income to ascertain tax liability .Section 80C to 80U provides certain deductions which can be claimed from Gross Total Income (GTI). After claiming these deductions from GTI, the income remaining is called as  Total Income. In other words, GTI less Deductions (under section 80C to 80U) = Total Income (TI). Total income can also be understood as taxable income. Following table gives a better understanding of the difference between GTI and TI :

 

Computation of gross total income and Taxable Income

Particulars Amount
Income from salary XXXXX
Income from house property XXXXX
Profits and gains of business or profession XXXXX
Capital gains XXXXX
Income from other sources XXXXX
Gross Total Income XXXXX
Less : Deductions under Chapter VI-A (i.e. under section 80C to 80U) (XXXXX)
Total Income (i.e., taxable income) XXXXX

Note : Inter source losses, inter head losses, brought forward losses, unabsorbed depreciation, etc., (if any) will have to be adjusted (as per the Income-tax Law) while computing the gross total income. ​

  • How to round off total income before computing tax liability?

As per section 288A, total income computed in accordance with the provisions of the Income-tax Law, shall be rounded off to the nearest multiple of ten. Following points should be kept in mind while rounding off the total income:

  • First any part of rupee consisting of any paisa should be ignored.

After ignoring paisa, if such amount is not in multiples of ten, and last figure in that amount is five or more, the amount shall be increased to the next higher amount which is in multiple of ten and if the last figure is less than five, the amount shall be reduced to the next lower amount which is in multiple of ten and the amount so rounded off shall be deemed to be the total income of the taxpayer.​

 

  • Can I claim deduction for my personal and household expenditure while calculating my taxable income or profit?

No, you cannot claim deduction of personal expenses while computing the taxable income.

While computing income under various heads, deduction can be claimed only for those expenses which are provided under the Income-tax Act.

  • Most of my income is given away in charity and I am left with just enough money to meet my personal requirements. What will be considered as my income?

What is done after the income is earned by you will not give you tax exemption. However, contribution to approved institutions will give you the benefit of deduction from taxable income under section 80G subject to limits specified therein.

  • My daughter stays in USA. She owns a house in India and has let it out. She has asked tenants to pay rent to me. She has not received any rent. Is she still liable to tax? What if she transfers the house to me?

​​​​​Rental income is charged to tax in the hands of the owner of the property. Your daughter is the owner of the house and, therefore, she is liable to pay tax, even though you receive rent. If the house is transferred to you, then you will become the owner and you will have to pay Income-tax on the rental income.​

  • Is there any limit of income below which I need not pay tax?

​​​At this moment (i.e., for the financial year 2017-18​) Individual, HUF, AOP, and BOI having income below Rs. 2,50,000 need not pay any Income-tax. In respect of resident individuals of the age of 60 years and above but below 80 years, the basic exemption limit is Rs. 3,00,000 and in respect of resident individuals of 80 years ​and above, the limit is Rs. 5,00,000. For other categories of persons such as co-operative societies, firms, companies and local authorities, no basic exemption limit exists and, hence, they have to pay taxes on their entire income chargeable to tax.

  • How to compute the total tax liability?

​​After ascertaining the total income, i.e., income liable to tax, the next step is to compute the tax liability for the year. Tax liability is to be computed by applying the rates prescribed in this regard. For rates of tax, refer “Tax Rate” section. Following table will help in understanding the manner of computation of the total tax liability of the taxpayer.

 

Computation of total income and tax liability for the year

Particulars Amount
Income from salary XXXXX
Income from house property XXXXX
Profits and gains of business or profession XXXXX
Capital gains XXXXX
Income from other sources XXXXX
Gross Total Income XXXXX
Less : Deductions under Chapter VI-A (i.e.,

under section 80C to 80U))

(XXXXX)
Total Income (i.e., taxable income) XXXXX
Tax on total income to be computed at the applicable rates (for rates of tax, refer “Tax Rate” section) XXXXX
Less : Rebate under section 87A (XXXXX)
Tax Liability After Rebate XXXXX
Add: Surcharge (discussed in later FAQ) XXXXX
Tax Liability After Surcharge XXXXX
Add: Education cess @ 2% on tax liability after surcharge XXXXX
Add: Secondary and higher education cess @ 1% on tax liability after surcharge XXXXX
Tax liability before rebate under sections 86, section 89, sections 90, 90Aand 91 (if any) (*) XXXXX
Less : Rebate under sections 86, section 89, sections 90, 90A and 91(if any) (*) (XXXXX)
Tax liability for the year before pre-paid taxes XXXXX
Less: Prepaid taxes in the form of TDS, TCS and advance tax (XXXXX)
Tax payable/Refundable XXXXX

(*) Rebate under section 86 is available to a member of association of persons (AOP) or body of individuals (BOI) in respect of income received by such member from the AOP/BOI.

Rebate (i.e., relief) under section 89 is available to a salaried employee in respect of sum received towards arrears of salary, gratuity, etc.

Rebate under sections 90, 90A and 91 is available to a taxpayer in respect of double taxed income, i.e., income which is taxed in India as well as abroad.

Note : For provisions relating to Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) in case of corporate taxpayers and Alternate Minimum Tax (AMT)  in case of non-corporate taxpayers refer tutorial on “MAT/AMT”.

  • How to round off the tax liability?

​​​​​​ As per section 288B, tax payable by the taxpayer or tax refundable to the taxpayer shall be rounded off to the nearest multiple of ten, following points should be kept in mind while rounding off the tax :

  • First any part of rupee consisting of any paisa should be ignored.
  • After ignoring paisa, if such amount is not a multiples of ten, and the last figure in that amount is five or more, the amount shall be increased to the next higher amount which is a multiple of ten and if the last figure is less than five, the amount shall be reduced to the next lower amount which is a multiple of ten; and the amount so rounded off shall be deemed to be the tax payable by the taxpayer or refundab​le to the taxpayer.
  • What is rebate under section 87A for F.Y 2017-18 and who can claim it?

An individual who is resident in India and whose total income does not exceed Rs. 3,50,000 is entitled to claim rebate under section 87A. Rebate under section 87A is available in the form of deduction from the tax liability. Rebate under section 87A will be lower of 100% of income-tax liability or Rs. 2,500. In other words, if the tax liability exceeds Rs. 2,500, rebate will be available to the extent of Rs. 2,500 only and no rebate will be available if the total income (i.e. taxable income) exceeds Rs. 3,50,000.

  • Can a partnership firm or HUF claim rebate under section 87A?

​Rebate under section 87A is available only to an individual, hence, any person other than an individual cannot claim rebate under section 87A.

  • Can a non-resident claim rebate under section 87A?

Rebate under section 87A is available only to an individual who is resident in India, hence, non-residents cannot claim rebate under section 87A.

  • What is surcharge and how it is computed?

Surcharge is an additional tax levied on the amount of income-tax. In case of individuals/HUF/AOP/BOI/artificial juridical person, surcharge is levied @ 10% on the amount of income-tax where the total income of the taxpayer exceeds Rs. 50 lakh but doesn’t exceeds Rs. 1 crore.

Surcharge is levied @ 15% of income-tax where the total income of the taxpayer exceeds Rs. 1 crore (*).

In case of Firm, co-operative society and local authority surcharge is levied at 12% if total income exceeds Rs 1 crore.​

In case of a domestic company surcharge is levied @ 7% on the amount of income-tax if the total income exceeds Rs. 1 crore but does not exceed Rs. 10 crore and @ 12% on the amount of income-tax if total income exceeds Rs. 10 crore (*).

In case of a foreign company surcharge is levied @ 2% on the amount of income-tax if the total income exceeds Rs. 1 crore but does not exceed Rs. 10 crore and @ 5% on the amount of income-tax if total income exceeds Rs. 10 crore (*).

(*) A taxpayer can claim marginal relief from the amount of surcharge, subject to certain conditions. Refer to next FAQ for concept of marginal relief.

 

**

Surcharge is additional tax levied on the amount of income-tax. In case of individuals surcharge is levied @ 10​% on the amount of income-tax where the total income of the taxpayer exceeds Rs. 50 lakh. In this case, total income of Mr. Kapoor is below Rs. 50 lakh, hence, he will not be liable to pay surcharge. ​​

  • What is marginal relief and how it is computed?

The concept of marginal relief is designed to provide relaxation from levy of surcharge to a taxpayer where the total income exceeds marginally above Rs. 50 lakh, Rs. 1 crore or Rs. 10 crore, as the case may be.

Thus, while computing surcharge, in case of taxpayers (i.e. Individuals/HUF/AOP/BOI/artificial juridical person) having total income of more than Rs. 50 lakh marginal relief shall be available in such a manner that the net amount payable as income-tax and surcharge shall not exceed the total amount payable as income-tax on total income of Rs. 50 lakh by more than the amount of income that exceeds Rs. 50 lakh.

In case of a company, surcharge is levied @ 7% (2% in case of foreign company) on the amount of income-tax if the total income exceeds Rs. 1 crore but does not exceed Rs. 10 crore and @ 12% (5% in case of foreign company) on the amount of income-tax if total income exceeds Rs. 10 crore. Hence, in case of company whose total income exceeds Rs. 1 crore but does not exceeds Rs. 10 crore, marginal relief will be computed as discussed above, but in the case of company having total income above Rs. 10 crore marginal relief is available in such a manner that the net amount payable as income-tax and surcharge shall not exceed the total amount payable as income-tax and surcharge on total income of Rs. 10 crore by more than the amount of income that exceeds Rs. 10 crore.

 

  • Under how many heads the income of a taxpayer is classified?

​​ ​​​​

Section 14 of the Income-tax Act has classified the income of a taxpayer under five different heads of income, viz.:

  • Salaries
  • Income from house property
  • Profits and gains of business or profession
  • Capital gains
  • Income from other sources​​

 

  • What is gross total income?

​​Total income of a taxpayer from all the heads of income (as discussed in previous FAQ) is referred to as Gross Total Income.

  • What is the difference between gross total income and total income?

​​​​​Total Income is the income on which tax liability is determined. It is necessary to compute total income to ascertain tax liability .Section 80C to 80U provides certain deductions which can be claimed from Gross Total Income (GTI). After claiming these deductions from GTI, the income remaining is called as  Total Income. In other words, GTI less Deductions (under section 80C to 80U) = Total Income (TI). Total income can also be understood as taxable income. Following table gives a better understanding of the difference between GTI and TI :

 

Computation of gross total income and Taxable Income

Particulars Amount
Income from salary XXXXX
Income from house property XXXXX
Profits and gains of business or profession XXXXX
Capital gains XXXXX
Income from other sources XXXXX
Gross Total Income XXXXX
Less : Deductions under Chapter VI-A (i.e. under  section 80C to 80U) (XXXXX)
Total Income (i.e., taxable income) XXXXX

Note : Inter source losses, inter head losses, brought forward losses, unabsorbed depreciation, etc., (if any) will have to be adjusted (as per the Income-tax Law) while computing the gross total income. ​

  • How to round off total income before computing tax liability?

As per section 288A, total income computed in accordance with the provisions of the Income-tax Law, shall be rounded off to the nearest multiple of ten. Following points should be kept in mind while rounding off the total income:

  • First any part of rupee consisting of any paisa should be ignored.

After ignoring paisa, if such amount is not in multiples of ten, and last figure in that amount is five or more, the amount shall be increased to the next higher amount which is in multiple of ten and if the last figure is less than five, the amount shall be reduced to the next lower amount which is in multiple of ten and the amount so rounded off shall be deemed to be the total income of the taxpayer.​

 

  • Can I claim deduction for my personal and household expenditure while calculating my taxable income or profit?

No, you cannot claim deduction of personal expenses while computing the taxable income.

While computing income under various heads, deduction can be claimed only for those expenses which are provided under the Income-tax Act.

  • Most of my income is given away in charity and I am left with just enough money to meet my personal requirements. What will be considered as my income?

What is done after the income is earned by you will not give you tax exemption. However, contribution to approved institutions will give you the benefit of deduction from taxable income under section 80G subject to limits specified therein.

  • My daughter stays in USA. She owns a house in India and has let it out. She has asked tenants to pay rent to me. She has not received any rent. Is she still liable to tax? What if she transfers the house to me?

​​​​​Rental income is charged to tax in the hands of the owner of the property. Your daughter is the owner of the house and, therefore, she is liable to pay tax, even though you receive rent. If the house is transferred to you, then you will become the owner and you will have to pay Income-tax on the rental income.​

  • Is there any limit of income below which I need not pay tax?

​​​At this moment (i.e., for the financial year 2017-18​) Individual, HUF, AOP, and BOI having income below Rs. 2,50,000 need not pay any Income-tax. In respect of resident individuals of the age of 60 years and above but below 80 years, the basic exemption limit is Rs. 3,00,000 and in respect of resident individuals of 80 years ​and above, the limit is Rs. 5,00,000. For other categories of persons such as co-operative societies, firms, companies and local authorities, no basic exemption limit exists and, hence, they have to pay taxes on their entire income chargeable to tax.

  • How to compute the total tax liability?

​​After ascertaining the total income, i.e., income liable to tax, the next step is to compute the tax liability for the year. Tax liability is to be computed by applying the rates prescribed in this regard. For rates of tax, refer “Tax Rate” section. Following table will help in understanding the manner of computation of the total tax liability of the taxpayer.

 

Computation of total income and tax liability for the year

Particulars Amount
Income from salary XXXXX
Income from house property XXXXX
Profits and gains of business or profession XXXXX
Capital gains XXXXX
Income from other sources XXXXX
Gross Total Income XXXXX
Less : Deductions under Chapter VI-A (i.e., under section 80 C to 80 U ) (XXXXX)
Total Income (i.e., taxable income) XXXXX
Tax on total income to be computed at the applicable rates (for rates of tax, refer “Tax Rate” section) XXXXX
Less : Rebate under section 87A (XXXXX)
Tax Liability After Rebate XXXXX
Add: Surcharge (discussed in later FAQ) XXXXX
Tax Liability After Surcharge XXXXX
Add: Education cess @ 2% on tax liability after surcharge XXXXX
Add: Secondary and higher education cess @ 1% on tax liability after surcharge XXXXX
Tax liability before rebate under  sections 86, section 89, sections 90, 90Aand 91 (if any) (*) XXXXX
Less : Rebate under sections 86, section 89, sections 90, 90A and 91 (if any) (*) (XXXXX)
Tax liability for the year before pre-paid taxes XXXXX
Less: Prepaid taxes in the form of TDS, TCS and advance tax (XXXXX)
Tax payable/Refundable XXXXX

(*) Rebate under section 86 is available to a member of association of persons (AOP) or body of individuals (BOI) in respect of income received by such member from the AOP/BOI.

Rebate (i.e., relief) under section 89 is available to a salaried employee in respect of sum received towards arrears of salary, gratuity, etc.

Rebate under sections 90, 90A and 91 is available to a taxpayer in respect of double taxed income, i.e., income which is taxed in India as well as abroad.

Note : For provisions relating to Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) in case of corporate taxpayers and Alternate Minimum Tax (AMT)  in case of non-corporate taxpayers refer tutorial on “MAT/AMT”.

  • How to round off the tax liability?

As per section 288B, tax payable by the taxpayer or tax refundable to the taxpayer shall be rounded off to the nearest multiple of ten, following points should be kept in mind while rounding off the tax :

  • First any part of rupee consisting of any paisa should be ignored.
  • After ignoring paisa, if such amount is not a multiples of ten, and the last figure in that amount is five or more, the amount shall be increased to the next higher amount which is a multiple of ten and if the last figure is less than five, the amount shall be reduced to the next lower amount which is a multiple of ten; and the amount so rounded off shall be deemed to be the tax payable by the taxpayer or refundab​le to the taxpayer.

 

  • What is rebate under section 87A for F.Y 2017-18 and who can claim it?

An individual who is resident in India and whose total income does not exceed Rs. 3,50,000 is entitled to claim rebate under section 87A. Rebate under section 87A is available in the form of deduction from the tax liability. Rebate under section 87A will be lower of 100% of income-tax liability or Rs. 2,500. In other words, if the tax liability exceeds Rs. 2,500, rebate will be available to the extent of Rs. 2,500 only and no rebate will be available if the total income (i.e. taxable income) exceeds Rs. 3,50,000.

  • Can a partnership firm or HUF claim rebate under section 87A?

Rebate under section 87A is available only to an individual, hence, any person other than an individual cannot claim rebate under section 87A.

  • Can a non-resident claim rebate under section 87A?

Rebate under section 87A is available only to an individual who is resident in India, hence, non-residents cannot claim rebate under section 87A.

  • What is surcharge and how it is computed?

Surcharge is an additional tax levied on the amount of income-tax. In case of individuals/HUF/AOP/BOI/artificial juridical person, surcharge is levied @ 10% on the amount of income-tax where the total income of the taxpayer exceeds Rs. 50 lakh but doesn’t exceeds Rs. 1 crore.

Surcharge is levied @ 15% of income-tax where the total income of the taxpayer exceeds Rs. 1 crore (*).

In case of Firm, co-operative society and local authority surcharge is levied at 12% if total income exceeds Rs 1 crore.​

In case of a domestic company surcharge is levied @ 7% on the amount of income-tax if the total income exceeds Rs. 1 crore but does not exceed Rs. 10 crore and @ 12% on the amount of income-tax if total income exceeds Rs. 10 crore (*).

In case of a foreign company surcharge is levied @ 2% on the amount of income-tax if the total income exceeds Rs. 1 crore but does not exceed Rs. 10 crore and @ 5% on the amount of income-tax if total income exceeds Rs. 10 crore (*).

(*) A taxpayer can claim marginal relief from the amount of surcharge, subject to certain conditions. Refer to next FAQ for concept of marginal relief.

 

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s